There are plenty of tutorials for == and === so please don't guide me to a basic tutorial, my question is a bit more specific: For example http://www.w3schools.com/jsref/jsref_obj_string.asp states that: Syntax: var txt = new String("string"); // or more simply: var txt = "string"; Good, but what about this? alert(new String("a") == new String("a")); // false alert("a" == "a"); // true var a = new String("a"); var b = new String("a"); alert(a == b); // false var c = "a"; var d = "a"; alert(c == d); // true alert(c === d); // true alert (a === c); // false Of course nobody calls new String() anyway, but is it something about the equality failing because new String() is handled as an object not as a string? And of course W3Schools is not the most trusted source but I would have expected all of the above alerts to say true. Please explain.
operands then applies strict comparison. If either operand is a number
or a boolean, the operands are converted to numbers if possible; else
if either operand is a string, the other operand is converted to a
compares internal references which are equal when operands refer to
the same object in memory.
You can experience the same behavior with numbers:
new Number(5) == new Number(5) // false
And clarify your mind by:
typeof "string" // string typeof new String("string") // object
String literals, which are primitive value types, are different from new
So you’re right in that comparison is handled differently for literals and for objects, simply because one compares their values while the other compares references.
You are correct that in your example case you are comparing 2 different object references. Within the language specification you’ll find this algorithm. The portion you are looking for is section 1 f.
11.9.3 The Abstract Equality Comparison Algorithm
11.9.3 The Abstract Equality Comparison Algorithm The comparison x == y, where x and y are values, produces true or false. Such a comparison is performed as follows: 1. If Type(x) is the same as Type(y), then a. If Type(x) is Undefined, return true. b. If Type(x) is Null, return true. c. If Type(x) is Number, then i. If x is NaN, return false. ii. If y is NaN, return false. iii. If x is the same Number value as y, return true. iv. If x is +0 and y is -0, return true. v. If x is -0 and y is +0, return true. vi. Return false. d. If Type(x) is String, then return true if x and y are exactly the same sequence of characters (same length and same characters in corresponding positions). Otherwise, return false. e. If Type(x) is Boolean, return true if x and y are both true or both false. Otherwise, return false. f. Return true if x and y refer to the same object. Otherwise, return false. 2. If x is null and y is undefined, return true. 3. If x is undefined and y is null, return true. 4. If Type(x) is Number and Type(y) is String, return the result of the comparison x == ToNumber(y). 5. If Type(x) is String and Type(y) is Number, return the result of the comparison ToNumber(x) == y. 6. If Type(x) is Boolean, return the result of the comparison ToNumber(x) == y. 7. If Type(y) is Boolean, return the result of the comparison x == ToNumber(y). 8. If Type(x) is either String or Number and Type(y) is Object, return the result of the comparison x == ToPrimitive(y). 9. If Type(x) is Object and Type(y) is either String or Number, return the result of the comparison ToPrimitive(x) == y. 10. Return false.
Also take notice that steps 8 and 9 which makes dealing with String objects a bit cleaner.
alert(new String("a") == "a"); // true alert("a" == new String("a")); // true
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